President of the United States (US) Joe Biden, the world’s climate conditions, one of which is about Indonesia. Biden said, if the projections are correct, in the next 10 years Indonesia will have to move its capital city from DKI Jakarta or it will sink.
Biden made the statement about Indonesia when he visited the Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Biden said, now sea levels continue to rise. He revealed, in the future, many people will migrate and fight over fertile land.
According to him, if what is projected is correct, then in the next 10 years Indonesia will have to move the capital city because it will sink.
“But what happens – what happens in Indonesia if the projections are right that, in the next 10 years, they might have to move the capital because they’re going to be underwater?” he said.
“That’s important. This is a strategic question as well as an environmental question,” Biden added.
It could be that Biden cited research in Jakarta that would sink from The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA assesses that Jakarta is very at risk and prone to drowning due to a combination of many factors, climate change, the growing population, as well as water exploitation in the Indonesian capital.
“With rising global temperatures and the search for ice sheets, many coastal cities are at increased risk of flooding. That’s because of rising sea levels,” NASA wrote.
The global average sea level is rising by 3.3 millimeters per year. It was like that, the rain was getting more intense with the atmosphere getting hotter.
That is coupled with the merciless extraction of groundwater with a water pump. Data shows that around 40 percent of Jakarta’s land area is currently below sea level.
“The groundwater pump causes the ground to sink or recede at high speed,” NASA said in a statement.
Jakarta’s land subsidence has also been accelerated by urbanization, changes in land use, and rapid population growth.
Narrowing or clogging of river channels and canals by sediment and garbage also accelerates Jakarta’s land subsidence.
Another factor that accelerates the sinking of Jakarta is reclamation.
Subscribe to Floods Since Long ago
NASA shows data that Jakarta has always been a flood customer. Since 1990, heavy flooding in Jakarta has occurred regularly for several years.
The landscape in the lowlands and the presence of a large river that can be said to always overflow during floods, Jakarta has become very familiar with floods.
Well, the flood is getting worse with changes in the function of the area on the riverbank. The changes were recorded by NASA through images from space or INDsat.
The comparison of the Jakarta Landsat in 1990 and 2020 is striking. From the photo, it is clear that the evolution of Jakarta in the last three decades.
The face of Jakarta on July 9, 1990 Photo: (NASA)
From the Landsat photo, it can be seen that there is a loss of forest and vegetation along the Ciliwung and Cisadane rivers. The area was turned into a settlement.
After there is no vegetation and forest after becoming a settlement, the overflow of the two rivers no longer has an absorption area. The area then actually contributes to runoff and flash floods.
Satellite image of Jakarta on September 11, 2019 Photo: (NASA)
“The rainy season in 2007 brought devastating floods with more than 70 percent of the city submerged,” NASA said.
“With Jakarta’s population more than doubling between 1990 and 2020, more people throng the high-risk floodplain,” NASA said in a statement.
Massive Residential Development in Jakarta Bay
From the 1990 and 2019 Landsats, it can be seen the emergence of artificial land and development in Jakarta Bay waters. According to one analysis of Landsat data, there are already at least 1,185 hectares of artificial land along the coast.
“Most of the land is used for high-end housing developments and golf courses,” said Dhritiraj Sengupta, a remote sensing researcher at East China Normal University.
Artificial or reclaimed land has a high risk. According to Sengupta, Jakarta cannot avoid and fight sea level rise and storm surges.
“Artificial islands are often the type of soil that sinks the fastest, as the sand and soil settles and becomes compacted over time,” Sengupta said.
Ground-based satellites and sensors recorded that parts of North Jakarta are experiencing a decline of tens of millimeters per year. On the new reclaimed island, that figure is quite high, up to 80 millimeters, per year.
A comparison photo of Jakarta in 1990 and 2019 from the air:
Currently, the reclaimed islands contain housing built by the Jakarta Integrated Coastal Development. This is an effort made to protect the city from flooding and promote economic development.
Its main initiative is the construction of a giant sea wall and 17 new artificial islands around Jakarta Bay. Although work on the project started in 2015, various problems were inevitable and actually slowed down construction.
The Indonesian government has discussed moving the capital to Kalimantan. This step is expected to bring changes to Jakarta, which is increasingly dense and submerged.
“Plans to build a large seawall or seawall still exist, but may not be sufficient to maintain the status quo in Jakarta,” NASA wrote.
Next is the response of the DKI Jakarta Provincial Government regarding the prediction that Jakarta will sink